Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

Thermogravimetric analysis is a method in the portfolio of thermal analysis methods in which the mass of a sample is determined according to the temperature, time, and surrounding atmosphere. Changes in the mass range can be detected with a high degree of accuracy in this process.

Thermogravimetric analyses are applicable to a wide range of materials. Typical samples are plastics, organic substances such as food, wood and coal, or inorganic samples such as cement, ceramics or soils.

Principle

For the analysis, a small amount of the sample is weighed in a temperature-stable and inert vessel of aluminum oxide or platinum, put into the oven and exposed to a controlled temperature program. The sample holder is coupled with a microbalance and the mass change of the sample is continuously recorded during heating or cooling. The TG Libra F1 offered by Netzsch allows fast heating rates from room temperature up to 1,100 °C.

If necessary, the sample room can be purged with different gases (nitrogen / oxygen / air) to avoid or induce oxidation.

Our services

  • Analysis of the smallest sample quantities of a wide range of materials with regard to mass changes during temperature exposure
  • Determination of mass change levels (Δm, ΔT)
  • Determination of mass loss by physical processes (evaporation, sublimation) or by reactions (reduction, decomposition with the formation of volatile products, pyrolysis)
  • Determination of mass gain or loss by oxidation
  • Output of the peak temperatures (1st and 2nd derivation of the mass change curve) as well as onset and end point

Applications

  • General: quantification of organic and inorganic proportions
  • Indications of possible reactions of the material under temperature influence or decomposition of the material
  • Determination of:
    • Moisture or dry weight
    • Content of (highly) volatile compounds (solvents)
    • Glass and carbon fiber contents (fillers) in polymer materials
    • Carbon black content in elastomers
    • Coal ash/coal combustion residuals (CCR)
    • Chalk content in PE bags
    • Polymer content due to pyrolysis between 300 °C and 600 °C
    • Content of crystal water or surface adsorbed water

TG measuring curve including 1st derivation of a material sample with 4 stages of mass loss

Sample requirements

  • Analysis of solid and liquid samples
  • Only small sample quantities necessary (mg range)
  • Minimal sample preparation

Specifications

  • TG 209 F1 Libra (Netzsch)
  • Minimum sample weight: 25 mg
  • Maximum sample weight: 150 mg
  • Temperature range: 20–1,100 °C 
  • Heating rate: 0.001 to 50 K/min
  • Scale accuracy: ± 0.01%

Standards

Accredited to:

DIN EN ISO 11358
Plastics – Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers: General principles

Tests based on:

DBL 5555
Supply specification finished parts and semi-finished products made of organic polymer materials – General conditions and test methods
DIN 51006
Thermal analysis (TA) – Thermogravimetry (TG) – Principles
ISO 6964
Polyolefin pipes and fittings – Determination of carbon black content by calcination and pyrolysis – Test method and basic specification
PN 705
Elastomers – Requirements and test methods (glass transition, polymer components)
PV 3927
Thermogravimetric analysis for plastics and elastomers – Determination of plasticizers, carbon black (polymer components)
TL 52354
Glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester resin for car body parts (glass fiber proportion)
VDA 675 135
VDA Guideline – Elastomer components in motor vehicles – Testing methods for identification – Thermogravimetry – TGA
VW 50123
Thermoplastic elastomers – Quality requirements (melting point, polymer components)

Contact

SGS INSTITUT FRESENIUS GmbH
Königsbrücker Landstr. 161
01109 Dresden

t +49 351 8841-200
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